By Dominick Graham

ISBN-10: 0312215916

ISBN-13: 9780312215910

ISBN-10: 0333668596

ISBN-13: 9780333668597

ISBN-10: 1349271470

ISBN-13: 9781349271474

Professor Graham compares the functionality of the British military within the global wars. He identifies as a resource of failure within the First international battle, Sir Douglas Haig's lack of ability to undertake acceptable operations for his selected approach, or appropriate strategies for the operations. Montgomery frequently refrained from that mistake within the moment global conflict. Graham attracts upon his personal event of wrestle to aid the reader make a connection among the orders given to corps and their influence on small units.

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Additional resources for Against Odds: Reflections on the Experiences of the British Army, 1914–45

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Rs ~ • • Combles ~ a ... 0 0 C:io '\ o~ o : 'I> : 'I> ~ CUrlS) ,:/ \, \p ~ Line on 1 July _BrHish = French Line on night of 1 July ___ • British Line on 14 July ........ British ceOG Oo cgo French Line on morning of 15 September ••• _ •• British O Ct O ~ o. French Line on 22 September •• - •• - British 2 The Somme, 1916 Politicians, Commanders and Battles 33 tactical operation that could be terminated when required. Here operational theories in June 1916 must be briefly explained. Ferdinand Foch commanded the group of French armies to the right of the British Fourth Army under Rawlinson.

Some of these ideas were used in the final offensives between August and October 1918. Maxse had not heard of the new artillery ideas about to be used by Third Army at Cambrai in November which obtained complete surprise. The German artilleryman, Colonel Georg ('Break-through') Briichmuller, had developed similar ideas at Riga on the Russian front. The new artillery survey methods used at Cambrai were available at Ypres but the ground and Haig's battle plan would not have suited the method. On 9 December 1917, after the 3rd battle of Ypres had sapped the energy and strength of the BEF Maxse wrote to Brigadier Charles Bonham Carter, then responsible for staff duties, tactical doctrine and training manuals at GHQ, when the reduction of the strength of brigades from four battalions to three was being discussed: Why not consider the future organisation of platoons in 1918, when we shall be worse off for manpower, now.

The creeping barrage, simply called a barrage in the Second World War unless it was termed 'standing', used artillery as a neutralizer, Politicians, Commanders and Battles 37 rather than a destroyer. On the Somme shrapnel shells were used for barrages. When they were correctly paced and placed and the infantry had learned to 'lean' on them, they were consistently effective in both wars. In a terrain from which most features had been erased by shelling they gave the infantry direction. However, it inhibited infantry tactics based on fire and movement because the infantry followed it in lines rather than sections.

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Against Odds: Reflections on the Experiences of the British Army, 1914–45 by Dominick Graham

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