By Philip L. Taylor

ISBN-10: 0511014465

ISBN-13: 9780511014468

ISBN-10: 0511998783

ISBN-13: 9780511998782

This reader-friendly advent to the idea that underlies the numerous attention-grabbing houses of solids assumes in basic terms an undemanding wisdom of quantum mechanics. Taylor and Heinonen describe the tools for acting calculations and making predictions of a few of the various advanced phenomena that take place in solids and quantum drinks. Their e-book, geared toward complex undergraduates and starting graduate scholars, leads the reader from the elemental habit of electrons and atoms in solids to the main lately explored manifestations of the quantum nature of condensed subject.

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The first, discussed above, is that the final configuration of the atom corresponds to the electron being some distance from the nucleus and this state is always the same for all atoms of the same type. The second difference is related to the nature of the radiation emitted. Radiation has the form of electromagnetic waves, which will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter; for the moment, we need only know that such a wave has a characteristic wavelength corresponding to the colour of the light.

6. We are particularly interested in the case where the energy of the approaching particle is smaller than the step height, so from a classical point of view we would expect the particle to bounce back as soon as it reaches the step, and then to move backwards at the same speed. Much the same thing happens when we apply quantum physics, but there are important differences, as we shall see. First we consider the form of the matter wave. qxp 1/28/2008 11:39 AM Page 51 Waves and particles 51 discussion, we expect particles approaching the step to be represented by travelling waves moving from left to right, whereas after they bounce back, the wave will be travelling from right to left.

3, we see that if a standing wave has zero amplitude at the ends of a cavity of length L, then a whole number of half wavelengths must exactly fit into the distance L. Thus L=1 – nln so that ln = 2L͞n 2 where n is a whole number and ln is one of the allowed wavelengths. The subscript n in ln is simply a label used to distinguish the wavelengths belonging to the different standing waves. Thus l1 = 2L, l2 = L, l3 = 2L͞3 and so on As the frequency of a wave is related to the wavelength, this must also be constrained to a set of particular values, given by fn = c͞ln = nc͞2L This principle underlies the operation of many musical instruments.

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A quantum approach to condensed matter physics by Philip L. Taylor

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