By Douglas Walton
This paintings takes an analytical examine the philosophical suggestion of fallacy and provides an updated critique of its usefulness for argumentation experiences.
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Extra resources for A Pragmatic Theory of Fallacy (Studies in Rhetoric and Communication)
Although many individual fallacies have now been studied and analyzed in the growing literature on argumentation, the concept of fallacy itself has heretofore lacked enough of a clear meaning to make it as useful as it could be as a tool for evaluating arguments. The view put forward is one that will appear radical and controversial to traditionalists in logic. A fallacy is regarded as an argumentation technique, based on an argumentation scheme, misused to block the goals of a dialogue in which two parties are reasoning together.
Rule 7: A standpoint must be regarded as conclusively defended if the defence takes place by means of arguments in which a commonly accepted scheme of argumentation is correctly applied (289). Rule 8: The arguments used in a discursive text must be valid or capable of being validated by the explicitization of one or more unexpressed premises (290). Rule 9: A failed defence must result in the protagonist withdrawing his standpoint and a successful defence must result in the antagonist withdrawing his doubt about the standpoint (291).
6 And even in the most elaborately formalized of thesethe 'Why-Because-Game-with-Questions'the ultimate goal or purpose of the game was left vague and open-ended (no doubt purposely). The dialogue was said to be "information-oriented" (Hamblin 1970, 271). But exactly what counts as "information" was left open. This openness has been worrisome to many interested in using games of dialogue to analyze fallacies. Does it allow a pluralism of all kinds of games of dialogue? Can you simply invent formal games of dialogue at will and declare them legitimate?
A Pragmatic Theory of Fallacy (Studies in Rhetoric and Communication) by Douglas Walton