By John M. Levesque
Contents: creation; Supercomputer structure; Fortran; Vectorization of Fortran courses. Index. This publication explains intimately either the underlying structure of ultra-modern supercomputers and the way in which a compiler maps Fortran code onto that structure. most crucial, the constructs combating complete optimizations are defined, and particular concepts for restructuring a software are supplied
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Additional resources for A Guidebook to Fortran on Supercomputers
In 32-bit floating-point mode, each pipeline is capable of generating two results per clock cycle. 7. Here, each 64-bit section of the arrays B and C is split upon arrival into two 3 2-bit input operands, the effect being a result rate of two per clock cycle — double that of 64-bit arithmetic. 7. 2 THE VECTOR PROCESSOR 31 Now consider that a fully configured CYBER 205 has four such pipelines, so the total result rate can be four 64-bit or eight 3 2-bit floating-point results per clock cycle. Linked Triad.
2 THE VECTOR PROCESSOR 39 The Cray X-MP, with its extra memory paths: • Fetches the vector B(l:64) to a vector register, while simultaneously fetching C(l:64), and, as soon as B(l) and C(l) have arrived, begins adding the vectors together, placing the results in a third vector register while simultaneously storing the results into A(l:64). ) Here we have used the ANSI 8X Fortran ''array section'' notation to indicate ranges of elements in the arrays. This will be fully discussed in Chapter 3. 9 indicates the relative cost in clock cycles for the preceding loop on the Cray-1 and X-MP.
Consider a memory-bank structure that has 256 banks, and the bank cycle time is 64 clock cycles. If the memory functional-unit time is 25 + N, how long would it take, in clock cycles, to fetch 64 words from memory with strides of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256? 2. The major bottleneck on a SISD machine is that only a single instruction can be issued each clock cycle. Explain how the following machines overcome this bottleneck and what category (SIMD or MIMD) each are: a. Uniprocessor of a Cray X-MP in vector mode.
A Guidebook to Fortran on Supercomputers by John M. Levesque